The study that most clearly addresses the comparison of Cr forms 18 fed supra-supplementation levels of ppb Cr the allowed level of supplementation in the US is ppb Cr to examine potential differences among several Cr sources including those currently commercially available in the United States.
The results demonstrated that there are differences in deposition of Cr in several tissues among the various sources. This is not unexpected and is consistent with source differences that are known to exist for other minerals. It is consistent, specifi cally, with Cr deposition studies with rats 2 that demonstrate clear differences in Cr sources. The four forms of Cr evaluated by Lindemann et al 18 all showed some degree of bioavailability and they were CrPic, Cr methionine, Cr propionate, and Cr yeast.
The source that seemed to have the greatest bioavailability was the CrPic. Recent research utilizing nanotechnology is indicating a nanoparticle Cr that has similar bioavailability to CrPic 34, Effects of Cr on mortality or life span. In a study of controlled stress a controlled acute hemorrhage , the percentage of rats surviving was greater for the Cr-supplemented group The authors followed plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin throughout the study.
A series of studies with broilers provides clear evidence of an effect of Cr on mortality. The first two studies 12 Figure 1 were conducted in Brazil using a high Cr-yeast and the latter three studies 14, 15, 16 Figure 2 in Korea using CrPic. Several points can be made from the studies. First, when mortality is low and presumably the cumulative stress from crowding, disease challenge, heat, etc.
A second point to be made is that the response is clearly dose dependent. A question that naturally arises is whether there are potential Cr effects on mortality in reproducing sows. It would seem from our understanding of nutrient responses that the potential for a response would be greatest in those situations where there was the greatest departure from normal performance, i.
The same concept would exist with regard to potential mortality benefits in sows.
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One of the earliest studies reported does illustrate very clearly the potential benefit of Cr supplementation on some of these parameters. A large study 5 from Australia involving over sows Table 1 wherein supplementation of ppb Cr from CrPic resulted in a highly significant improvement in farrowing rate from Every aspect of reproductive health that was recorded was benefited by supplementation. Of particular note should be the reduction in mortality — a response consistent with the broiler observations.
Numerical improvements in mortality Figure 3 were also observed in the study of Hagen et al The reduction in mortality was greater in fi rst litter sows and sows older than three parities both of which had mortality substantially greater than that of the second and third parity sows. In this study, there were also improvements in litter size Figure 4 and wean to first service interval Figure 5. The improvements in litter size were seen for sows of all parities and the improvements in wean to first service interval were most pronounced in first parity females when the interval was greater than that of older sows.
These effects have much statistical strength given the size of the study; this study utilized 48, sows that farrowed almost , litters for almost 1,, pigs. The status of Cr is not a new question. Cr is clearly a nutrient that is essential; this is a position that has been held for over three decades by individual scientists, groups of scientists, and governmental committees. The most uniform metabolic response across species with regard to Cr deficiency symptoms that are responsive to Cr supplementation are alterations in glucose metabolism with special reference to peripheral tissue sensitivity to insulin.
TL, Olcott BM. Effect of chromium tripicolinate on growth, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, plasma metabolites, and growth hormone in pigs. J Anim Sci ; Dietary chromium effects on tissue chromium concentrations and chromium absorption in rats. J Trace Elem in Exp Med ; 9: Studies of gestational diabetes using the pig as a model.
Tumbleson Ed. Swine in Biomedical Research ; Vol. Plenum Press, New York. Bunding, IM, Davenport Jr. ME, Schooley MA. The glucose tolerance test in swine and its implications. Campbell RG. The effects of chromium picolinate on the fertility and fecundity of sows under commercial conditions. Chromium oligopeptide activates insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity.
Biochem ; Evans GW, Meyer L. Chromium picolinate increases longevity. Age ; Life span is increased in rats supplemented with a chromium-pyridine 2 carboxylate complex. Adv in Sci ; Res. Diabetogenic effects of pregnancy in sows on plasma glucose and insulin release. Effect of dietary chromium tripicolinate on productivity of sows under commercial conditions. Swine Health and Production ; 8 No.
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It is thought that Cr III is converted to Cr VI or Cr V through the action of oxidoreductases which then oxidize the thiol of the cysteine residue on PTP1B to sulfenic acid , consequently rendering it unable to attack the phosphate group on phosphotyrosine. Chromium III picolinate has been marketed in the United States as an aid to body development for athletes and as a means of losing weight.
Reviews have reported either no effect on either muscle growth or fat loss,  or else a modest but statistically significant There are claims that the picolinate form of chromium supplementation aids in reducing insulin resistance and improving glucose metabolism , particularly in type 2 diabetics , but reviews showed no association between chromium and glucose or insulin concentrations for non-diabetics, and inconclusive results for diabetics.
In , the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA approved a qualified health claim for chromium picolinate as a dietary supplement relating to insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes.
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Any company wishing to make such a claim must use the exact wording: "One small study suggests that chromium picolinate may reduce the risk of insulin resistance, and therefore possibly may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. FDA concludes, however, that the existence of such a relationship between chromium picolinate and either insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes is highly uncertain. There was no consistency observed in clinical results relating chromium III picolinate to adequate treatment of type 2 diabetes.
This is due to the degree of glucose intolerance of patients that participate in the clinical studies. Another important point to mention is that diabetes is not always caused by glucose intolerance. Furthermore, the environments in which the studies were performed were not consistent. The levels of stress, diets consumed by patients and patient genetics were variable among study subjects.
Collectively, these different factors have contributed to the variability in the studies. Initial concerns were raised that chromium III picolinate is more likely to cause DNA damage and mutation than other forms of trivalent chromium,  but these results are also debated. A study was published to assess the toxicity of Cr III picolinate on humans.
Generally speaking, it has been shown that chromium III picolinate is not toxic to humans. There have been isolated incidences of chromium III supplementation leading to kidney failure, however this relationship is unclear and has yet to be tested. In , the UK Food Standards Agency advised consumers to use other forms of trivalent chromium in preference to chromium III picolinate until specialist advice was received from the Committee on Mutagenicity. This was due to concerns raised by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals that chromium III picolinate might cause cancer its genotoxicity.
The committee also noted two case reports of kidney failure that might have been caused by this supplement and called for further research into its safety. Approved labeling statements include: a factor in the maintenance of good health, provides support for healthy glucose metabolism, helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates and helps the body to metabolize fats. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chromium III picolinate.
Tris picolinate chromium III. CAS Number. PubChem CID. Chemical formula. See also: Chromium in glucose metabolism. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. The trail of chromium III in vivo from the blood to the urine: the roles of transferrin and chromodulin.
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Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 6 : , Mechanism of chromium action Chromodulin. Movement of chromium into chromodulin in response to insulin.
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The nutritional biochemistry of chromium III. X-ray absorption and EPR spectroscopic studies of the biotransformations of chromium VI in mammalian cells. Is chromodulin an artifact of isolation methods? Journal of the American Chemical Society 5 : , Recent advances in the nutritional biochemistry of trivalent chromium.